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heNucleotide sequenceIn this study, the content of procalcitonin precursors in sardines has been determined from their terminal branchial glands. From our analysis of this sequence, we found that the sardineprocalcitoninConsists of amino-terminal procalcitonincleavage peptide(N-proCT) (53 amino acids),Connecticut(32 amino acids) and procalcitonin carboxy-terminal cleavage peptide (C-proCT) (18 amino acids). Compared with C-proCT, N-proCT is highly conserved among teleosts, reptiles and birds, indicating that N-proCT has certain biological activity. Therefore, sardine N-proCT and sardine CT were synthesized, and their effects on osteoblasts andBone massStudies were performed using our goldfish scale assay system composed of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. As a result, sardine N-proCT (10−7M) Activated osteoblast markersEnzyme activity, while the sardine CT has no change. On the other hand, sardines CT (10−9at 10−7M) Inhibition of enzymatic activity of osteoclast markers, although sardine N-proCT did not affect enzymatic activity. In addition, the mRNA expression of osteoblast markers, such asType 1 Collagenyesbone calciumSardine N-proCT (10−7m) Processing; however, CT sardines did not affect their expression. The osteoblastic effect of N-proCT was inconsistent. In this study, we could accurately assess the role of osteoblasts because our scale assay system has high sensitivity and is a co-culture system of osteoblasts and osteoclasts with calcified bone matrix. Both CT and N-proCT appear to affect osteoblasts and osteoclasts and promote bone formation through different actions in teleosts.
Calcitonin (CT) consists of 32 amino acid residues and acts as a calcium-lowering hormone that inhibits osteoclast activity in mammals (Azria, 1989). In addition, CT in teleosts and mammals has been shown to inhibit osteoclast activity in freshwater and marine teleosts (Suzuki et al., 2000; Sekiguchi et al., 2009). CT is mainly synthesized in C cells of the mammalian thyroid and in the terminal branchial gland (UBG) of non-mammalian vertebrates (Sasayama, 1999). During CT production, the hormone is first produced as a procalcitonin precursor, which is subsequently cleaved into 3 peptides: procalcitonin amino-terminal cleavage peptide (N-proCT), CT, and carboxy-cleavage peptide. Terminal procalcitonin (C-proCT) in salmon, chicken, rat, and humans (Burns et al., 1989a, Burns et al., 1989b). In cultures of neoplastic C cells, nearly equimolar concentrations of N-proCT and CT in cell extracts and basal media have been reported (Burns et al., 1989a). These facts strongly suggest that N-proCT has some biological activity.
To date, there is no consensus in the literature on whether N-proCT has an osteogenic effect. That is, human N-proCT has no mitogenic activity on rat osteoblasts or preosteoblasts (Guenther and Fleisch, 1991), and has no accelerating effect on human osteoblast mitosis and cell differentiation (Hassager et al., 1991) . In contrast, Burns et al. (1989b) found that N-proCT at nanomolar concentrations (duration of treatment 20-22 hours) was mitogenic in human osteosarcoma cell lines.
On the other hand, we have previously determined the CT peptide sequence of UBGs from Japanese sardines (sardine) using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) (Suzuki et al., 1994). The calcium-lowering activity of synthetic sardine CT was investigated by comparing it with synthetic salmon CT in a rat bioassay. We found that the calcium-lowering activity of sardine CT was more than twice that of salmon CT (Suzuki et al., 1994). Therefore, sardine N-proCT may be highly active in osteoblasts because sardine CT is highly active in calcium metabolism. In general, however, sardines are difficult to keep long-term in aquariums, although the fish is easily collected in Japan. Therefore, this species is not suitable for physiological experiments. To analyze the bioactivity of CT and N-proCT, we developed an originalin vitrogoldfish detection system, it has been previously shown that fish CT inhibits osteoclast activity in goldfish scales (Caracio Dorado) (Suzuki et al., 2000, Sekiguchi et al., 2009). In addition, the osteoclast-activating hormone parathyroid hormone acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and then induces active osteoclasts (multinucleated osteoclasts) in goldfish (Suzuki et al., 2011). Then we scalein vitroGoldfish bioassays are suitable for elucidating hormone function.
In this study, we determined the full-length sequence of the sardine procalcitonin precursor from its UBG using the rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RACE) method. Furthermore, sardine N-proCT and sardine CT were synthesized and their bioactivity on osteoblasts and osteoclasts was investigated using our original goldfish scale assay system.
Japanese sardines (sardine) were purchased from Choshi Fisheries Association. Fish were used to determine procalcitonin precursors.
goldfish(Caracio Dorado), purchased from a commercial source (Higashikawa Fish Farm, Yamato Koriyama, Japan), and artificially inseminated from one female and one male goldfish (20–30 g) at the Graduate School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology. Tokyo Marine Technology. The fish were fed commercial pellets.
Sequencing of the sardine UBG procalcitonin precursor
The sequence of the sardine procalcitonin precursor was obtained from the RNA of its UBG using the RACE method. The sardine procalcitonin precursor consists of 134 amino acid residues, including the signal peptide (25 amino acids) (Figure 1). We predicted the signal peptide sequence using the SignalP 4 program (Petersen et al., 2011). Sardine procalcitonin consists of N-proCT (53 amino acids), CT (32 amino acids) and C-proCT (18 amino acids) (Figure 1).
These vertebrate N-proCT
Using the RACE method, we determined the total length of the sardine procalcitonin precursor (Figure 1). Our results showed that sardine procalcitonin consists of N-proCT (53 amino acids), CT (32 amino acids) and C-proCT (18 amino acids) (Figure 1). The amino acid sequences of 20 N-proCTs including sardine N-proCT were calculated by the neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6.06 software (Tamura et al., 2013). Molecular dendrograms of CT and N-proCT showed that these peptides were
This research was supported in part by an N.S. grant. (Research Scholarship[C]No.16K07871JSPS), a Y.T. (Research Scholarship[B]No.24310046af JSPS), en A.H. (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research [C] No.24570068JSPS), a T.S. (scientific research[C]No.15K07126JSPS) and K.K. (Scientific Research [C] No.15K01705via JSPS). This work was partially supported byNorwegian Institute for Nature and Environment Research Collaborative Research Project
Two osteoclast markers expressed in multinucleated goldfish scale osteoclasts
Biography of Biochemistry. Ordinary reservoir
- jready cockwait.
Scale regeneration in bony fish
Compensatory Biochemical Physiology. one
Induction of estradiol 17β on vitellogenin in primary cultures of rainbow trout and rainbow trout hepatocytes
Compensatory Biochemical Physiology. Second
Changes in plasma vitellogenin, sex steroids, calcitonin, and thyroid hormones associated with sexual maturation in female trout (Salmo trutta)
Generally compensating endocrine.
Evidence for the defense of the calcitonin superfamily and mechanisms of activity regulation in the basal chordate Florida amphioxus: insights into chordate molecular and functional evolution
J. Biology. Kemi
Bisphenol A inhibits osteoclast and osteoblast activity in cultured goldfish scales
Fish calcitonin genes: genes from primitive teleosts are conserved in some lower vertebrates
Generally compensating endocrine.
Calcitonin inhibits osteoclast activity in goldfish (freshwater bony fish) and diaper fish (seawater bony fish) scales.
Estrogen may directly induce the secretion of calcitonin from the end gill cells of goldfish
Generally compensating endocrine.
Effects of Vibration on Osteoblast and Osteoclast Activity: Analysis of Bone Metabolism Using Goldfish Scale as a Bone Model
Advanced Spatial Resolution
Parathyroid hormone 1(1-34) acts on scales and participates in goldfish calcium metabolism
Osteoblast and osteoclast gene expression during spontaneous regeneration and autografting of goldfish scales: a new tool for studying intramembranous bone regeneration
Comparison of phosphoprotein, total protein, and total calcium plasma levels as indirect indicators of exogenous vitellogenesis in the goldfish Carassius carassius (L.)
Compensatory Biochemical Physiology. Second
Elevated calcitonin levels during ovarian development in Anguilla japonica eels
Generally compensating endocrine.
Osteoblast activity and estrogen response in regenerated scales of goldfish, an excellent model for osteogenesis
I: Calcitonin: Physiology and Pharmacology
A neuroendocrine peptide derived from the amino-terminal portion of rat procalcitonin
Diagnosis and antibiotic reference value of procalcitonin for intracranial infection after craniotomy
2019, World Neurosurgeon
Distinguishing intracranial infection from noninfectious disease is challenging; however, the advent of procalcitonin (PCT) has brought new light to the field of intracranial infection. PCT is a precursor of calcitonin that is synthesized in the C cells of the thyroid and secreted by white blood cells. 7 PCT is generally considered an endogenous non-steroidal substance, a glycoprotein with no hormonal activity.
To evaluate the diagnostic value and relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum procalcitonin (PCT) for intracranial infection after craniotomy, and explore the value of PCT in guiding clinical antibiotic use.
The incidence of intracranial infection in 21 patients who underwent craniotomy was reviewed. CSF and venous blood samples were collected for analysis. The diagnostic parameters were calculated according to the receiver operating characteristic curve, and the inflammatory indicators before and after antibiotic administration in the infection group were analyzed. As a control group, 32 uninfected patients were recruited for the same measurements.
Serum and cerebrospinal fluid PCT levels in the infected group were higher than those in the uninfected group (PAG< 0.05), the diagnostic efficiency of CSF PCT (area under the curve = 0.86, diagnostic odds ratio = 41.40) was better than that of serum PCT (area under the curve = 0.66, diagnostic odds ratio = 3.40). The diagnostic efficiency was higher when using serial testing (specificity = 0.99, positive likelihood ratio = 37.10, diagnostic likelihood ratio = 54.45). With the exception of CSF proteins, all indicators of inflammation decreased after antibiotic administration (PAG= 0.129), there was no significant correlation between CSF and serum PCT. The dynamic changes of PCT can be used as a reference for adjusting antibiotics. CSF PCT can also be used as an index to identify Gram-negative bacterial intracranial infection.
CSF PCT is a good marker of intracranial infection, which can be used in combination with serum PCT to diagnose intracranial infection and guide the clinical use of antibiotics.
Calcitonin I and II may be involved in calcium metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus) female reproductive physiology
2023, International Fisheries Research
Glyoxal-induced formation of advanced glycation end products in type 1 collagen reduces its strength and flexibility in vitro
2021, Journal of Diabetes Research
2020, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Development of a system to measure calcitonin in Dasyatis akajei (cartilaginous fish): ray calcitonin may be involved in gonadal development
2019, International Fisheries Research
Growth hormone (GH) and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH): colocalization and roles in chicken testis
General and Comparative Endocrinology, Volume 199, 2014, Pages 38-45
Growth hormone (GH) gene expression is not restricted to the pituitary gland, but is present in many extrapituitary tissues, including chicken testis. However, the regulation and function of GH in extrapituitary tissues is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the possibility that chicken testicular GH might be regulated by GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), as it is in the avian pituitary. GHRH co-localizes with GH in the germinal epithelial and mesenchymal regions of chicken testis, especially in spermatogonia and spermatocytes. In testicular cell cultures, exogenous human GHRH1-44Induces (at 1, 10 and 100 nM) a dose-related increase in GH release. Western blot analysis revealed a heterogeneous pattern of GH moieties released during GHRH stimulation. The 26 kDa GH monomer was the most abundant fraction under basal conditions, but the 15 and 17 kDa isoforms were more abundant after GHRH stimulation. GHRH treatment also increased the incidence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immune responses in the testis. This may be GH-mediated, since exogenous GH also increased (3H)-thymidine in cultured testicular cells and increased their metabolic activity as determined by a greater reduction in MTT. Furthermore, immunoneutralization of GH and GHRH blocks GHRH-stimulated proliferative activity. Taken together, these results suggest that GHRH stimulates testicular GH secretion in an autocrine or paracrine manner. The data also show a proliferative effect of GHRH on testicular number and suggest that this effect is mediated by local GH production.
Spikeless nuclei as indicators of komatiite fusion activity in the Earth's mantle
Lithos, bind 216–217, 2015, s. 315-323
In parts of the mantle below the Mojo transition zone of the northern Omani ophiolites (Wadi Rajmi), high-magnesium peridotites with little or no spinel occur as veins pass through chromite sheaths. Consider only thick veins (>50 cm) to avoid Mg-Fe subsolidus effects2+Exchanged with chromite host rocks in the olivine composition. Pure olivine without spinel is particularly high in Mg (Fo>93) olivine, while olivine in spinel-poor olivine has a lower Fo content (Fo91-93). Furthermore, chromium spinel in spinel-poor dunite shows high Cr# values up to 0.8 [atomic ratio Cr#=Cr/(Cr+Al)]. We find that these Koma-purified peridotites formed through a process of partial crystallization of olivine rather than displacement, and that the chromite acts as an insulating capsule in which the melt produced by the reaction of the lava with the peridotite mineral is preserved. There is a continuum of olivine chemistry from spinel-free to spinel-bearing dunite to high-calcium feldspar described in ophiolites in northern Oman (Fizh block). This strongly suggests a genetic link between spinel-free or spinel-poor peridotite and dolmantite, which represent aggregated and split fusions, respectively, resulting from the fusion of primary komatiites. In this paper, we challenge prevailing models that rule out the genesis of komatiites in supersubduction zones and elucidate mantle conditions early in arc evolution.
Development of Radioactive Iodine Labeled 4-Hydroxyphenylcysteamine for Specific Diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma
Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Volume 42, Issue 6, 2015, Pages 536-540
A specific diagnosis of melanoma is strongly desired because the prognosis of malignant melanoma is poor. In previous studies, although 4-hydroxyphenyl-L-cysteine was labeled with radioactive iodine 125 (125I-L-PC) has good affinity to the substrate of tyrosinase in melanin metabolism,123/131The substrate affinity of I-L-PC for tyrosinase is insufficient for the diagnosis of melanoma. In this study, we synthesized 4-hydroxyphenylcysteamine (4-PCA) and developed a radioactive iodine 125 (125I-PCA) to increase affinity for the melanin biosynthetic pathway.
4-PCA was cleaved by 2-hydroxyphenylcysteamine (2-PCA), an isomer of 4-PCA, and studied using melting point, proton NMR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis.125I-PCA was prepared using the chloramine-T method without adding support. We performed biodistribution experiments using mice bearing B16 melanoma125I-PCA,125IL-PC,125I-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine,123I-subway- iodobenzylguanidine and67gallium citrate. In vitro assays were performed on B16 melanoma cells and affinity for tyrosinase, DNA polymerase, and amino acid transport was assessed using inhibitors of phenylthiourea, thymidine, oubinidine, and L-tyrosine. There is also a partition coefficient125I-PCA was evaluated.
In the synthesis of 4-PCA, the measured values did not differ between the calculated and reported values, and 4-PCA was separated from 2-PCA in high purity. In biodistribution experiments,125I-PCA accumulates and is retained in B16 melanoma cells125I-L-PC。125I-PCA showed the highest values for melanoma-to-muscle ratio, melanoma-to-blood ratio, and melanoma-to-skin ratio at 60 min after radiotracer injection. accumulation125I-PCA was significantly inhibited by phenylthiourea and thymidine. Partition coefficient125I-PCA is lower thannorth-Isopropanol-pag-[123I]iodamphetamine with125I-L-PC。
125I-PCA is a better substrate for tyrosinase and DNA polymerase, and125I-L-PC. Delphi,123/131I-PCA has good potential for diagnosing malignant melanoma.
125I-PCA will be a specific diagnostic tool for malignant melanoma.
123/131Compared with other SPECT tracers as well as chemotherapy for melanoma, I-PCA has good potential for diagnosis of malignant melanoma.
Epstein-Barr virus-associated leukemia-lymphoma after allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Journal of Clinical Virology, bind 80, 2016, s. 82-8
Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) associated with leukemia Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is extremely rare. We can successfully treat patients with EBV-associated leukemia-lymphoma with rituximab, cidofovir, and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). In the present case, after DLI, there was a rapid increase in EBV-specific T cells present in the peripheral blood before rituximab treatment, which was associated with a decreased EBV DNA load.
Reply to Nozaka's (2014) comment on dehydration decomposition of antigorite and CPO formation of B-type olivine
Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Bound 408, 2014, s. 406-407
Effect of fluoroscopy visible skin flap on clinical diagnosis of acute aortic dissection
Journal of the American College of Cardiology, bind 63, nummer 14, 2014, s. e31
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