skin layers | SEER training (2023)

an epidermis

ÖEpidermisIt is the outermost layer of skin and protects the body from environmental influences. The thickness of the epidermis varies in different skin types; It is only 0.05 mm thick on the eyelids and 1.5 mm thick on the palms and soles. The epidermis contains melanocytes (the cells in whichMelanomadeveloped), Langerhans cells (involvednoimmune systemin the skin), Merkel cells and sensory nerves. The epidermis layer itself is made up of five sub-layers that work together to continuously rebuild the skin's surface:

The basal cell layer

The basal layer is the innermost layer of the epidermis and contains small round cells called basal cells. Basal cells are constantly dividing, and new cells keep pushing older ones to the surface of the skin, where they eventually break off. EITHERbasal cellThe layer is also referred to askeim capedue to the fact that it constantly germinates (produces) new cells.

skin layers | SEER training (1)

The basal cell layer contains cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes produce the color of the skin orPigmentknown asMelanin, which gives the skin its brown or brown color and helps protect the deeper layers of the skin from the harmful effects of the sun. Sunexhibitioncauses melanocytes to increase the production of melanin to protect the skin from harmful UV rays, resulting in a tan. Melanin spots on the skin cause birthmarks, freckles and age spots. A melanoma develops when melanocytes undergoMALIGN Transformation.

(Video) Anatomy and Physiology of the Skin, Animation

Merkel cells, which are neuroectodermal touch cells.originThey are also found in the basal layer of the epidermis.

A layer of squamous epithelial cells

Ösquamous epitheliumThe layer lies above the basal layer and is also referred to asstacheliges Fellor "spiky cap" due to the fact that the cells are held together with spiny protrusions. Within this layer are basal cells that have been pushed up, but these mature cells are now called squamous cells or keratinocytes.keratinocytesto produceRandsteina hard, protective oneProteinwhich makes up the largest part of the skin structure,Fur, minails.

The squamous epithelium is the thickest layer of the epidermis and is involved in the transport of certain substances in and out of the body. The squamous layer also contains cells called Langerhans cells. These cells attach themselvesAntigenthey penetrate damaged skin and alert the immune system to their presence.

(Video) Introduction to Skin Anatomy and Physiology

The stratum granulosum and the stratum lucidum

The squamous keratinocytes are then pushed up through two thin layers called epidermalgranulated extractIt is inbright bed🇧🇷 As these cells move further towards the skin's surface, they become larger and flatter and stick together, eventually becoming dehydrated and dying. eastprocessleads to the fusion of cells into layers of tough, durable material that migrate further to the skin's surface.

the horny layer

ÖThe stratum corneumIt is the outermost layer of the epidermis and consists of 10 to 30 thin layers of dead keratinocytes that are constantly being shed. The horny layer is also called "stratum corneum" because its cells are hardened like an animal's horn. As the outer cells age and wear down, they are replaced by strong, durable new layers of cells. The stratum corneum is continuously shed as new cells take their place, but this shedding process slows down with age. CompletelycellRenewal occurs every 28 to 30 days in young adults, while the same process takes 45 to 50 days in older adults.


ÖdermisIt lies below the epidermis and is the thickest of the three layers of skin (1.5 to 4 mm thick) and accounts for about 90 percent of the skin's thickness. The main functions of the dermis are temperature regulation and nourishment of the epidermisnourishing-run overSangre🇧🇷 large part of the bodyaguaSupply is stored in the dermis. This layer contains most of the skin's specialized cells and structures, including:

(Video) The science of skin - Emma Bryce

  • blood vessels
    Blood vessels carry nutrients and oxygen to the skin and carry away waste and cellular products. Blood vessels also carry vitamin D produced in the skin back to the rest of the body.
  • lymph vessels
    Lymphatic vessels bathe skin tissues with lymph, a milky substance containing immune system cells that fight infection. These cells work to destroy any infection or invading organism as the lymph circulates to the lymph nodes.
  • hair follicles
    The hair follicle is a tubular covering that surrounds the part of the hair that sits under the skin and nourishes the hair.
  • sweat glands
    The average human has about 3 million sweat glands. Sweat glands are classified into two types:
    1. Apocrine glands are specialized sweat glands found only in the armpits and pubic area. These glands secrete a milky sweat that encourages the growth of bacteria responsible for body odor.
    2. The eccrine glands are the true sweat glands. Located throughout the body, these glands regulate body temperature by drawing water through the pores to the skin's surface, where it evaporates and lowers the skin's temperature. These glands can produce up to two liters of sweat per hour, but they mainly excrete water, which doesn't encourage the growth of odor-causing bacteria.
  • sebaceous gland
    Sebaceous or sebaceous glands are attached to the hair follicles and can be found all over the body except for the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. These glands secrete oil that helps keep skin soft and supple. The oil also helps keep the skin waterproof and protects against the overgrowth of bacteria and fungi on the skin.
  • nerve endings
    The dermis layer also contains pain and touch receptors that transmit pain sensation, itch, pressure, and temperature information to the brain for interpretation. If necessary, a tremor (involuntary contraction and relaxation of the muscles) is triggered, which generates body heat.
  • collagen and elastin
    The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen, which is produced by fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are skin cells that give skin its strength and resilience. Collagen is a tough, insoluble protein found throughout the body in the connective tissues that hold muscles and organs in place. In the skin, collagen supports the epidermis and gives it resilience. Elastin, a similar protein, is the substance that helps skin spring back into place when stretched and keeps skin supple.

The dermis layer consists of two sublayers:

papillary layer

The upper papillary layer contains a fine array ofCollagenFibers The papillary layer supplies nutrients to selected layers of the epidermis and regulates temperature. Both functions are performed finely and broadlyvascular SystemIt works similarly to other vascular systems in the body. Constriction and expansion control blood flow to the skin and determine whether body heat is dissipated when the skin is warm or retained when the skin is cold.

the reticular layer

the lowest,reticularlayer, it is thicker and consists of thick collagen fibers arranged parallel to the skin's surface. The reticular layer is denser than thepapillary dermis, strengthens the skin and gives it structure and elasticity. It also supports other components of the skin, such as hair follicles,sweat glands, misebaceousglands

(Video) Layers of the skin

the subcutaneous

ÖsubcutaneousIt is the innermost layer of the skin and is made up of a network of fat cells and collagen. Subcutaneous is also known assubcutaneousÖlower layer of skin, and works as an insulator, conserving body heat, and asSchock-Absorbent, protects internal organs. It also stores fat asEnergyReserve for the body. blood vessels, nerves,LymphVessels and hair follicles also pass through this layer. The thickness of the subcutaneous layer varies by body and from person to person.

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(Video) Understanding the Layers of the Skin


What are the 3 layers of skin? ›

Skin is the largest organ in the body and covers the body's entire external surface. It is made up of three layers, the epidermis, dermis, and the hypodermis, all three of which vary significantly in their anatomy and function.

Do humans have 8 layers of skin? ›

Well, human skin is composed of three layers: the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis. These three layers of skin each have their own separate functions and make up the human body's largest organ.

Do we have 12 layers of skin? ›

The skin is composed of two main layers: the epidermis, made of closely packed epithelial cells, and the dermis, made of dense, irregular connective tissue that houses blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, and other structures.

How do you remember layers? ›

From lowest to highest, the major layers are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. "The Snow Makes Things Exciting" is an easy way to remember these layers in order.

How do you remember TCP layers? ›

Introduction: TCP/IP Layers/Stack/Model Mnemonic

The mnemonic is "Armadillos Take In New Ants": Application, Transport, Internet, Network Access. Also mapped to the OSI Layers.

Do humans have 10 layers of skin? ›

Your skin has three main layers, and the epidermis (ep-uh-derm-us) is the outermost layer in your body. The other two layers of skin are the dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis is the thinnest layer of skin, but it's responsible for protecting you from the outside world, and it's composed of five layers of its own.

How thick is skin? ›

Skin is the largest organ of the body. It has an area of 2 square metres (22 square feet) in adults, and weighs about 5 kilograms. The thickness of skin varies from 0.5mm thick on the eyelids to 4.0mm thick on the heels of your feet. Skin is the major barrier between the inside and outside of your body!

What are the 4 main layers of skin? ›

The Epidermis

Skin that has four layers of cells is referred to as “thin skin.” From deep to superficial, these layers are the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum.

What is skin made of? ›

The skin is the body's largest organ, made of water, protein, fats and minerals. Your skin protects your body from germs and regulates body temperature. Nerves in the skin help you feel sensations like hot and cold.

What are 4 functions of the skin? ›

Provides a protective barrier against mechanical, thermal and physical injury and hazardous substances. Prevents loss of moisture. Reduces harmful effects of UV radiation. Acts as a sensory organ (touch, detects temperature).

What are the 5 skin layers? ›

The epidermis is subdivided into five layers or strata:
  • stratum basale.
  • stratum spinosum.
  • stratum granulosum.
  • stratum lucidum.
  • stratum corneum.

Is skin a tissue or organ? ›

The skin is the largest organ of the body. The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands) make up the integumentary system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection. It protects the body from external factors such as bacteria, chemicals, and temperature.

Do we have 50 layers of skin? ›

There are three main layers of skin: Epidermis: The outermost layer, which contains five sub-layers. Dermis: The middle layer, which consists of two parts known as the papillary dermis (thin, upper layer) and the reticular dermis (thick, lower layer) Subcutaneous tissue: The deepest layer of skin.

Why is skin an organ? ›

It is sometimes considered an organ because it contains several types of tissues and a membrane and it covers the body. The skin is the largest organ of the body and includes associated organs and derivatives of the skin such as hair, nails, glands, and specialized nerve endings.

How thick is skin on stomach? ›

The range of skin + subcutaneous tissue thickness at abdomen is 2.20-28.05 mm in males and 5.15-27.40 mm in females [Table 10].

What layer of skin is shiny? ›

Sweat helps control your body temperature (thermoregulation). Keeping your skin moist: Your dermis contains sebaceous glands, which secrete an oily lubricant (sebum) that helps keep your skin and hair hydrated and shiny.

Is human skin waterproof? ›

Skin is a waterproof, flexible, but tough protective covering for your body. Normally the surface is smooth, punctuated only with hair and pores for sweat. A cross-section of skin shows the major parts. It is divided into three layers.

What acronym can you use to remember the layers of the epidermis? ›

You can easily remember the layers of the epidermis using the acronym: Come, Let's Get Sun-Burned! Thin skin contains the same layers, except for the stratum lucidum, which is missing.

What is the correct order of the layers? ›

Starting from earth's surface, the six layers are Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Exosphere.

Why is it important to learn about layers? ›

The use of layers is one of the most important concepts you can learn in Photoshop. Layers are the key to building a nondestructive workflow because they enable you to isolate important image components so that you can edit each independently of the rest of the image.

What are the 5 layers of TCP IP? ›

Each host that is involved in a communication transaction runs a unique implementation of the protocol stack.
  • Physical Network Layer. The physical network layer specifies the characteristics of the hardware to be used for the network. ...
  • Data-Link Layer. ...
  • Internet Layer. ...
  • Transport Layer. ...
  • Application Layer.

What are the 4 layers of TCP IP? ›

The four layers of the TCP/IP Model include Network Access Layer, Internet Layer, Host to Host Layer, and Application Layer.

How many layers of skin does a human lose a day? ›

Though you can't see it happening, every minute of the day we lose about 30,000 to 40,000 dead skin cells off the surface of our skin. So just in the time it took you to read this far, you've probably lost about 40,000 cells. That's almost 9 pounds (4 kilograms) of cells every year!

Is the skin a tissue? ›

The skin consists of three layers of tissue: the epidermis, an outermost layer that contains the primary protective structure, the stratum corneum; the dermis, a fibrous layer that supports and strengthens the epidermis; and the subcutis, a subcutaneous layer of fat beneath the dermis that supplies nutrients to the ...

How does skin grow? ›

The epidermis constantly renews itself: New cells are made in the lower layers of the epidermis. These move to the surface within four weeks. This constant renewal serves to replace the cells that are lost and fall to the ground as tiny flakes of skin when the skin is rubbed.

How thick is thick skin? ›

Thick skin definition

The epidermis of thick skin can be up to 1.5 mm . Thick skin does not contain any hair follicles or sebaceous glands. Thick skin also contains no arrector pili muscles, which cause goosebumps.

What gives skin its color? ›

Melanin is a natural pigment that gives your skin its color. It's produced in cells called melanocytes.

How heavy is the skin? ›

There's one we wear on the outside. Skin is our largest organ—adults carry some 8 pounds (3.6 kilograms) and 22 square feet (2 square meters) of it. This fleshy covering does a lot more than make us look presentable.

Why does skin have 3 layers? ›

Skin has three layers: The epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone. The dermis, beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands. The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue.

Do you only have 7 layers of skin? ›

Although there are seven layers, the skin contains three major sub-divisions. The outermost division of the skin is known as the epidermis. The epidermis contains five of the seven layers of skin! The other two divisions of the skin include the dermis and the subcutis.

Why is skin important? ›

Your skin is the organ that comes into contact with the rest of the world. It holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration (dee-hahy-DREY-shun), and keeps harmful microbes (MYE-krobs) out—without it, we would get infections. Your skin is full of nerve endings that help you feel things like heat, cold, and pain.

What is skin called? ›

The skin you can see is called the epidermis. This protects the more delicate inner layers. The epidermis is made up of several 'sheets' of cells. The bottom sheet is where new epidermal cells are made.

Why is it called skin? ›

Skin is a borrowing from Old Norse skinn "animal hide, fur", ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European root *sek-, meaning "to cut" (probably a reference to the fact that in those times animal hide was commonly cut off to be used as garment).

What is the smallest organ? ›

The smallest organ is the pineal gland. It is situated centrally in the brain. It is the main site for the secretion of melatonin that controls the internal clock of the body.

What is the structure of skin? ›

The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen. This layer gives skin flexibility and strength. The dermis also contains pain and touch receptors. The subcutaneous fat layer is the deepest layer of skin.

What are the two layers of skin? ›

Skin is composed of two layers, the epidermis, the outer layer, which is derived from ectoderm, and the dermis, derived from mesoderm. The two layers are firmly adherent one to another with the dermis corresponding to the lamina propria of mucous membrane.

Which type of protein is present in human skin? ›

Collagen. Collagen is the most abundant structural protein in the connective tissues of the human body and makes up more than 75 percent of our skin.

How many body layers are there? ›

There are seven layers of skin and each layer serves different functions. The skin is the largest organ in the body and it covers the body's entire external surface.

Where is skin the thickest? ›

Skin is thickest on the palms and soles of the feet (1.5 mm thick), while the thinnest skin is found on the eyelids and in the postauricular region (0.05 mm thick).

What is the mnemonic used to remember the epidermis layers? ›

You can easily remember the layers of the epidermis using the acronym: Come, Let's Get Sun-Burned! Thin skin contains the same layers, except for the stratum lucidum, which is missing.

What is the mnemonic we use to remember the skin layers What are the layers in order from the bottom up? ›

The Epidermis consists of 5 layers (From base to top) - Stratum basale - Stratum spinosum - Stratum granulosum - Stratum lucidum - Stratum corneum Mnemonics Top to Bottom: Come Lets Get Sun Burnt Bottom to Top: Britney Spears Glows Like Candy (If you like her!)

How do you remember the function of the skin? ›

When I taught my students at the Aveda Institute, I used the acronym SHAPES to teach them to remember the functions of the skin:
  1. Sensation.
  2. Heating & Cooling (Temperature Regulation)
  3. Absorption.
  4. Protection.
  5. Excretion.
  6. Secretion.
  7. Sensation:
  8. Heat up enough and we will sweat to cool down.
21 Mar 2018

What is an easy way to remember the taxonomic levels? ›

To remember the order of taxa in biology (Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, [Variety]): "Dear King Philip Came Over For Good Soup" is often cited as a non-vulgar method for teaching students to memorize the taxonomic classification of system.

What are the 3 layers of the skin and describe what each one does? ›

Skin has three layers: The epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone. The dermis, beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands. The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue.

What is the formula of skin? ›

There is no chemical formula for skin. Skin is made of layers of cells, each one containing many chemical compounds.

What causes skin color? ›

Skin color is determined by a pigment (melanin) made by specialized cells in the skin (melanocytes). The amount and type of melanin determines a person's skin color.

What is our skin called? ›

The skin you can see is called the epidermis. This protects the more delicate inner layers. The epidermis is made up of several 'sheets' of cells. The bottom sheet is where new epidermal cells are made.

What organ affects the skin? ›

Your integumentary system is an organ that consists of a few main structures: skin, nails, hair and glands, along with the nerves and blood vessels that support them.


1. Skin Care Series: Understanding The Skin Layers | BEETA BEAUTY
2. Skin 2, Layers of the skin
(Dr. John Campbell)
3. The Integumentary System
(Professor Dave Explains)
4. Skin Layers - Stratum Corneum, Basale, Granulosum, and Spinosum [Dermatology Course 9/60]
(USMLE pass)
5. Skin: Histology
6. How to Easily Remember Layers of Skin
(DAaud SALeem Lectures)
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