NCLEX® Diabetes Drug Class Review - Easy Nursing (2023)

Understanding the different types of diabetes medications is critical, as their role and side effects can have profound consequences for your clients. I hope this NCLEX®The Diabetic Medication Review serves as a good overview of the topic, to support your study for your future practice.

Practical Questions on Diabetes Medication Classes

{{question_current_index+1}}/{{question_max_index+1}} FRAGEN


{{question_current_index+1}}/{{question_max_index+1}} FRAGEN


The client is very important, the client follows the client. Until the earth is not as good as the salad flatters. If you do not do a massage, children's sore throat is a kind of target.

learning successes

But at least the leaven urn should be ready. The vehicle policy does not count. Everyone said it was fun, but it's time for homework. Two ends of the ugly crowd, be it an airline or an asset. Whole rhoncus sollicitudin ligula, like feugiat pain sometimes in. There should be no hate for strangers. It was a weekend Curabitur sad fear thirsty dapibus fringilla. But Hendrerit paints caricatures to mitigate or follow the fear Morbi ultricies nibh eu bibendum dignissim.


answered correctly

answered wrong


0% responded to this

test tips


    Introduction to medication for diabetes.

    In 2018, there was an estimate34.2 million Americans(approx. 10.5% of the population) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). an additional of1.6 million AmericansYou have type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). It goes without saying that the number of diabetes patients is increasing rapidly, leading to a host of serious health complications, including heart disease and high blood pressure.

    Fortunately, scientific advances have dramatically improved outcomes for patients with T1DM and T2DM. Without the invention of insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes and those with virtually no endogenous insulin production could not live long. In recent decades, oral and injectable therapies have been developed that allow T2DM patients to live a life independent of insulin.

    Indications of medications for diabetes.

    Diabetes medications are only indicated for patients with advanced diabetes. This includes all clients with DM1 because their insulin production is zero, as well as clients with DM2 with chronically high blood glucose levels. However, one important exception is that metformin may be prescribed for clients with prediabetes, a condition in which blood sugar levels are above normal but not high enough to lead to a T2DM diagnosis.

    You are

    Find out how we've helped over 1,000,000 nursing students

    Diabetes Medication Table Indications

    Type-1-Diabetes mellitus (T1DM)
    • Clients with autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells → absolute reduction in insulin production.
    Type-2-Diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
    • Fasting plasma glucose > 126 mg/dL
      • (Fasting defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 hours)
    • 2-hour plasma glucose > 200 mg/dL via oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
      • (75 g glucose load dissolved in water)
    • For clients with A1C>6.5%
    • A client with a random plasma glucose reading > 200
    • FPG 100 mg/dL a 125 mg/dL
    • 2 h PG during 75 g OGTT
    • A1C 5,7% - 6,4%

    diabetes medication courses


    • MOA:
      • regular
        • Start: 30 minutes
        • Peak: 2-4 hours
        • Duration: 5-8 hours
      • Quick action:
        • Start: 3-15 minutes
        • Peak: 45-75 hours
        • Duration: 2-4 hours
      • Intermedio (NPH):
        • Start: 2 hours
        • Peak: 4-12 hours
        • Duration: 8-18 hours
      • long effect:
        • Start: 2 hours
        • Peak: 3-9 hours (insulin detemir only)
        • Duration: ~24 hours
      • Collateral damage:
        • hypoglycemia: Taking too much insulin or insulin without carbohydrate intake can cause hypoglycemia, defined as blood glucose (blood glucose) < 70 mg/dL. Signs and symptoms include tremors, irritability, loss of concentration.
        • weight gain
        • Injection site reactions
      • Precautions
        • Avoid insulin on a sliding scale, as it can increase the risk of hypoglycemia
        • Taking insulin with other diabetes medications (eg, sulfonylureas) may increase the risk of hypoglycemia
      • Care Consideration:
        • Injection technique for new insulin users:
          • Insulin can be injected into the abdomen, leg, arm, or buttocks.
          • When moving from one injection site to another, the rate at which insulin is absorbed may differ (eg, from the abdomen to the leg). Patients should avoid changing the general injection site and change it at this time. (for example, rotation of the injection site in the abdomen)
          • It is recommended to alternate the injection site to avoid scarring and side effects.
          • Pens must be primed before use to ensure the correct dose of insulin is delivered.
          • When insulin is injected before meals, it is imperative that the patient remember to eat to avoid hypoglycemia.
        • Control of hypoglycemia:
          • Signs and symptoms include tremors, irritability, loss of concentration.
          • In general, patients with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 70) can be controlled by taking glucose tablets or eating and drinking carbohydrates (1 serving of juice, sweets, fruits).
          • The goal is to consume 15 grams of carbohydrate every 15 minutes until hypoglycemia resolves (>70 mg/dL).
          • Patients in a coma or who are not awake may need glucagon (more common in T1D) to raise blood sugar.
          • Severe hypoglycemia may warrant a hospital visit
    • Common key generics (brand):
      • Regular:
        • Humulina (R)
        • Novolina (R)
      • Quick action:
        • Lispro (Humalog)
        • Aspart (Novolog)
        • Glulisina (Apidra)
      • Intermedio (NPH)
        • Humulin (N)
        • Novolina (N)
      • long performance
        • Insulin glargine (Basaglar, Lantus, Toujeo)
        • Insulindetemir (Levemir)
        • Insulina deglusina (Tresiba)


    • MOA:
      • Decreases hepatic glucose production.
      • Decreases intestinal glucose absorption
      • Improves insulin sensitivity
    • Collateral damage:
      • gastrointestinal upset
        • Diarrhea
        • nausea
        • To vomit
      • weight gain/loss
      • Lactatazidosis
    • Precautions:
      • Black box warning: risk of fatal lactic acidosis. Risk factors include renal dysfunction, concomitant use of certain drugs (eg, topiramate), age > 65 years, excessive alcohol consumption.
    • Care Consideration:
      • This is the preferred first-line treatment for clients with DM2
      • Clients may need a titration on this medication to mitigate side effects.
      • Avoid if you have chronic kidney disease (eGFR < 45)
    • Common Key Generics (Brand)
      • Metformin (glucophage)

    GLP-1 receptor agonists:

    • MOA:
      • Mimics the hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)
      • Binds to GLP-1 receptors and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin release
      • Delays gastric emptying - increases satiety
    • Collateral damage:
      • weightloss
      • Greater saturation (fullness)
      • acute pancreatitis
      • Injection site reactions
    • Precautions
      • Avoid in patients with pancreatitis
    • Care Consideration:
      • This can be considered before treating patients with insulin to lower HbA1c when oral diabetes medications are inadequate.
      • These drugs are associated with cardiovascular benefits; patients with cardiovascular disease may be good candidates for these drugs.
      • Some of these drugs may not be safe for people with severe kidney disease.
      • Clients with potential compliance issues should avoid GLP-1 agonists that require daily dosing (eg, liraglutide, exenatide).
      • Currently, most of these drugs are administered by subcutaneous injection (Rybelsus) was a recently approved oral formulation.
    • Common key generics (brands)
      • Liraglutide (Saxenda)
      • Exenatida (Byetta)
      • Dulaglutido (Victoza)
      • Semaglutida (Ozempic, Rybelsus)

    DPP-4 inhibitors:

    • MOA:
      • Prevents DPP-4 enzymes from breaking down the GLP-1 hormone
    • Collateral damage:
      • neutral weight
      • acute pancreatitis
      • liver dysfunction
      • Serious skin reactions (vildagliptin, saxagliptin)
    • care consideration
      • These drugs should be used with caution in patients with kidney disease.
    • Common key generics (brands)
      • Saxagliptina (Onlyza)
      • Sitagliptina (Januvia)
      • Linagliptin (Thirty)


    • MOA:
      • Stimulates the release of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas
    • Collateral damage:
      • Hypoglycemia: These drugs stimulate insulin release independent of glucose uptake. Taking insulin at the same time dramatically increases the risk of hypoglycemia.
      • weight gain
      • sulfa allergy
      • light sensitivity
    • Precautions:
      • The sulfa fraction contained in these compounds: avoid these drugs in patients with sulfa allergies
      • Increased risk of hypoglycemia in patients with chronic kidney disease
    • Care Consideration:
      • Hypoglycemia less common with glipizide
      • Use with caution in patients on insulin
      • Use with caution in patients with “sulfa allergy”.
      • Use with caution in patients with severe kidney disease
      • Common key generics (brands)
      • Glyburide (Glinasa)
      • Glipizida (Glucotrol)
      • Glimepirida (Amaryl)


    • MOA:
      • Increases insulin sensitivity by acting on adipose tissue
      • Increases musculoskeletal glucose utilization
      • Decreases the production of glucose in the liver.
    • Collateral damage:
      • weight gain
      • Fluid retention: worsening heart failure
      • maculoedema
    • Precautions:
      • Increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death: avoid in patients with heart failure.
    • Care Consideration:
      • Avoid these medicines if you have heart failure.
      • These medicines cause weight gain.
    • Common key generics (brands)
      • Pioglitazone (Akte)
      • Rosiglitazona (Avandia)

    SGLT2 inhibitors:

    • MOA:
      • Inhibits SGLT2 to reduce glucose reabsorption by up to 90%, which promotes glucose removal from the body.
    • Collateral damage:
      • weightloss
      • hypotension
      • acute kidney injury
      • Increased risk of bone fractures
      • diabetic ketoazidose
    • Precautions
      • Avoid in patients at increased risk of fractures (eg, osteoporosis)
      • Avoid in patients prone to diabetic ketoacidosis
      • Avoid in patients with frequent urinary tract infections
    • Care Consideration:
      • These drugs are associated with cardiovascular benefits, making candidates with advanced cardiovascular disease good candidates for these drugs.
      • These drugs increase the risk of urinary tract infections (especially yeast infections)
      • Avoid in patients with renal insufficiency
    • Common key generics (brands)
      • Canagliflozina (Invokana)
      • Dapagliflozina (Farxiga)
      • Empagliflozina (Jardiance)

    NCLEX® Diabetes Drug Class Review - Easy Nursing (2)

    Amy Stricklen

    NCLEX® Diabetes Drug Class Review - Easy Nursing (3)

    During my exam, I could literally see and hear him go through different areas as he answered my questions.

    Last Friday I resumed my maternity hesi and this time I decided to just watch all your OB truck videos my last week of vacation. I'm proud to say that with Mike's help, I scored a 928 on my Maternity Hesi!

    NCLEX Prep starts at $79/month

    NCLEX® Diabetes Drug Class Review - Easy Nursing (4)

    Amy Stricklen

    Important advice for the care of diabetic medication

    • Insulin is always indicated in patients with DM1 and is more of a treatment for advanced DM2 when oral medications or GLP-1 injections are not enough to lower A1C.
    • T1DM patients are mainly treated with insulin: oral diabetes medications are ineffective because the pancreas produces zero insulin.
    • Insulin and sulfonylureas increase the risk of hypoglycemia, which can be severe and life-threatening.
    • Metformin is usually the first-line treatment for patients with T2DM and a potential treatment for patients with prediabetes.
    • Many diabetes medications should be used with caution in people with advanced kidney disease.
    • GLP-1 agonists can sometimes be used instead of insulin as first-line injectable therapy for T2DM patients
    • Many diabetes medications can increase weight gain; consider medications associated with weight loss properties in obese and overweight patients (eg, GLP-1 agonists, SGLT2 inhibitors).

    Conclusion on the classes of drugs for diabetics.

    Diabetes is a complex chronic disease that affects millions of Americans every day. Diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, including hypotension, heart disease, and cardiovascular events (eg, myocardial infarction, stroke). There are many important considerations when treating patients with diabetes, as there are many types of medications with different side effect profiles.

    It is important to have a thorough understanding of diabetes medications because their prevalence is increasing rapidly each year for Americans today. I hope thatNCLEX®Diabetic Medication Reviewaids in diabetes research and general practice.


    1. Diabetic statistics. Diabetes Statistics | ADA. Consulted on April 21, 2020.
    2. American Diabetes Association. 2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2020. diabetes treatment Published on January 1, 2020. Accessed on April 21, 2020.
    3. American Diabetes Association. 9. Pharmacological approaches to glycemic control: standards of medical care in diabetes-2020. diabetes treatment Published on January 1, 2020. Accessed on April 21, 2020.
    4. Weinstock, RS. General principles of insulin therapy in diabetes mellitus. In: Post T, UpToDate editor. Waltham, MA: updated; 2020. Consulted on April 21, 2020.
    5. Metformin: drug information. In: Post T, UpToDate editor. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2020. Consulted on April 21, 2020.
    6. Dungan K, DeSantis A. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Post T, UpToDate editor. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2020. Consulted on April 21, 2020.
    7. Dungan K, DeSantis A. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Post T, UpToDate editor. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2020. Consulted on April 21, 2020.
    8. Wexler D. Sulfonylureas and meglitinides in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Post T, UpToDate editor. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2020. Consulted on April 21, 2020.
    9. Inzucchi S, Lupsa B. Thiazolidinediones in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Post T, Hrsg. Updated. Waltham, MA: updated; 2020. Access on April 21

    Do you need help with your next exam?Our proven system has helped over 1,000,000 nursing students reduce their study time, survive nursing school lectures, and pass their exams! SimpleNursing Membership Offers:

    • 1100 funny videos and visualsCoverage of the most proven topics in RN/PN nursing programs
    • Over 900 pages of cheat sheets& Made for you - Studienführer
    • Test tips and memory tricks.including

    See how our members are doing
    with a 96% success rate.
    start now for free

    I liked the questions
    and content of our
    NCLEX review?

    Try our NCLEX Simple Nursing Membership where we have over 3,000 questions to prepare you for the NCLEX

    try it free

    More NCLEX®evaluations

    • Acute Coronary Syndrome NCLEX® Review Acute coronary syndrome, or ACS, is a generic term used to describe a number of similar conditions that result in the death of cells within the heart due to blocked blood flow to that organ.
    • Placental Solution NCLEX Review
    • NCLEX Review of Respiratory Medications
    • Antibiotic Classes NCLEX® Pharmacology Review Infectious diseases are among the most challenging areas of medical practice, due in large part to the abundance of pathogens and antibiotics used to treat them.

    Study for the NCLEX®Easier

    Our proven system has helped over 1,000,000 students achieve an overall pass rate of 96%.

    Know more

    NCLEX® Diabetes Drug Class Review - Easy Nursing (11)

    Top Articles
    Latest Posts
    Article information

    Author: Arielle Torp

    Last Updated: 12/01/2022

    Views: 5644

    Rating: 4 / 5 (41 voted)

    Reviews: 88% of readers found this page helpful

    Author information

    Name: Arielle Torp

    Birthday: 1997-09-20

    Address: 87313 Erdman Vista, North Dustinborough, WA 37563

    Phone: +97216742823598

    Job: Central Technology Officer

    Hobby: Taekwondo, Macrame, Foreign language learning, Kite flying, Cooking, Skiing, Computer programming

    Introduction: My name is Arielle Torp, I am a comfortable, kind, zealous, lovely, jolly, colorful, adventurous person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.